Saturday, March 28, 2009
Concordance and its applications in language learning
Is there any measurable learning from hands-on concordancing?
By Tom Cobb, Division of Language Studies, City University of Hong Kong.
This study attempts to identify a specific learning effect that can be unambiguously attributed to the use of concordance software by language learners. A base-level hypothesis for learning from concordances is proposed, that a computer concordance might simulate and potentially rationalize off-line vocabulary acquisition by presenting new words in several contexts. To test this idea, an experimental lexical tutor was developed to introduce new words to subjects, either through concordances or through other sources of lexical information. In a series of tests involving transfer of word knowledge to novel contexts, a small but consistent gain was found for words introduced through concordances.
For more than a decade, corpus and concordance have been regularly described as one of the most promising ideas in computer-assisted language learning (Leech & Candlin, 1986; Johns, 1986; Johns & King, 1991; Hanson-Smith, 1993). Concordancing is a central idea in a proposed paradigm-shift from computer as magister to computer as pedagogue (Higgins, 1988), from a process-control model of language instruction to an information-resource model in which learners explore the language for themselves and the role of instruction is to provide tools and resources for doing so.
Oddly, however, the enthusiasm for hands-on concordancing has rarely resulted in attempts to test whether, how much, or under what conditions concordancing facilitates particular kinds or amounts of learning, particularly in comparison to traditional learning tools that are cheaper and more accessible. Even at the recent TALC96 (Teaching and Language Corpora) conference at Lancaster University, dedicated to "evaluating the claims made for the use of corpora in language instruction," none of the evaluations of hands-on activity took the form of a standard empirical study. For example, Aston (1996) reported a successful trial of the new 100 million-word British National Corpus and its SARA retrieval software with advanced language learners over ten sessions. But the research instrument was self-report, and the comparison with other learning tools suggested rather than demonstrated: "Compared with ... conventional reference instruments ... these learners reported greater success in finding solutions to problems of discourse interpretation and production" (p. 190). At some point, presumably, one would want to confirm the learners' impressions empirically, for example comparing the success of two groups on some specified, quantified measure of learning, where one group solved language problems with conventional reference instruments (like dictionaries and grammar books) while another used corpora and concordances.
Specific Uses Of Concordancing In language learning
As a grammar reference, for the teacher's own personal language learning (Web search engines: www.yahoo.fr, Google) For research that can guide the development of pedagogical materials (textbooks): what features should be taught when? Example: variant interrogative forms in conversation. Actual concordances can be used as the basis for exercises and activities: students are asked to formulate generalizations on the basis of the data. With relevant items deleted, the concordance can be used as a fill-in-the-blank exercise. Students can do their own research with a concordancer or Web search engine. For practical suggestions on possible classroom uses of concordancing, I recommend Tribble and Jones, Concordances in the Classroom: A Resource Guide for Teachers. Houston, TX: Athelstan, 1997. Many different types of questions can be explored through concordancing, from the simple to the more complex:
Spelling: Is it en couleur or en couleurs?
Capitalization: Is it Français or français?
Collocations (words that frequently co-occur): What words (nouns) frequently occur after (as the object of) the verb tirer 'to pull, draw?' e.g. tirer des conclusions.
Uses of grammatical structures: How are demonstrative pronouns such as celui, celle, etc. used? Where does one place the que of the restrictive expression neŠque (= 'only')?
Summary of Concordance Applications for language teaching
When language learners use concordancers. They discover rules of usage and grammar for themselves. They learn that language is complex and that rules are seldom totally true. Beside that they also learn to rely on their own judgment rather than the teacher. Concordancing is also a good way to train learners to pay attention to patterns of usage in their everyday reading. Some teachers also use concordancers to prepare printed worksheets for their students.
My personal view on concordance is very helpful not only to students and teachers (Language study) where they are assigned to do research On their fields where concordance is important to them but also to people who want to explore how interesting use a concordance to analyze words type and the number of specific word being used.
What is dissertation online?
According to think exist.com dissertation online is a formal or elaborate argumentative discourse, oral or written; a disquisition; an essay; a discussion; as, Dissertations on the Prophecies written online.
The online databases subscribe by PTSL is…
• LISA Net
• Emerald Fulltext
• Oxford Journal
• ACM Digital Library
• Computer Database
• Datastream Advanced
• Education Fulltext
• UNITAR e-Journal
• Jurnal e-Bangi
Here I write a brief summary on E learning article I found on Ebscohost and lisanet
E-Learning Programs in Higher Education
There are still many people who are skeptical, eLearning has emerged as a potential market to service knowledge workforces and especially higher education institutions. "E-Learning, as a whole, represents a wide range of organizational activities and technologies, including distance education, computer-based training, web-based training, Internet-based training, courseware delivery, and online learning and testing. ELearning represents the total integration of multimedia, instructor-led, and real-time training in a human, collaborative environment" (Brockbank, 2002, p. 1). E-Learning has become such an integral part of our society that potential markets have emerged in elementary and secondary education environments as well as in postsecondary institutions and corporations. According to the Council for Higher Education Accreditation (2007), distancelearning can be characterized as an environment in which: Instructors and students are physically separated.A combination of different types of media may be utilized. Instructors are not the only source for learning (i.e. students can learn from one another's experiences). Interaction can occur between teacher and student, student and student, and groups of students.
The interaction received through eLearning and distance learning provides users with many benefits that are not offered in a traditional classroom setting. By participating in distance learning, students are able to complete their curricula at their own desired speed. The learning process remains comfortable with eLearning because students can advance to different subject matter when they see fit and can avoid any pace pressures that may come with classroom learning. In customary education settings, students must continue learning at the same pace as their peers. However, this system can intellectually hinder the students because those who advance quickly through a topic must stay at the same pace with those who may need to spend additional time with the same topic. Distance learning avoids this conflict and focuses instead on the needs of the individual student.
Mobile e-learning for next generation communication environment
This article develops an environment for mobile e-learning that includes an interactive course, virtual online labs, an interactive online test, and lab-exercise training platform on the fourth generation mobile communication system. The Next Generation Learning Environment (NeGL) promotes the term "knowledge economy." Inter-networking has become one of the most popular technologies in mobile e-learning for the next generation communication environment. This system uses a variety of computer embedded devices to ubiquitously access multimedia information, such as smart phones and PDAs. The most important feature is greater available bandwidth. The learning mode in the future will be an international, immediate, virtual, and interactive classroom that enables learners to learn and interact. Adapted from the source document.
Saturday, March 21, 2009
Here I write briefly about the similirities and differences amongst 4 search engines. They are; Mama.com, Google Shcolar, Eric Digest and Yahoo.com. All of these search engines are similar in term of it functions to search information, pictures, news, directories, and many more. Besides that they also got similarity in term of their function to search friends in order to or to explore the virtual world directly with your own PC.
The differences amongst these search engines. Google scholar and Eric digest is more concern about searching materials for information across disciplines across many disciplines and sources: peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles, from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations.
Mama.com Search Engine
Mama.com search engine Mamma.com is a "smart" metasearch engine — every time you type in a query Mamma simultaneously searches a variety of engines, directories, and deep content sites, properly formats the words and syntax for each, compiles their results in a virtual database, eliminates duplicates, and displays them in a uniform manner according to relevance. It's like using multiple search engines, all at the same time.
Created in 1996 as a master's thesis, Mamma.com helped to introduce metasearch to the Internet as one of the first of its kind. Due to its quality results, and the benefits of metasearch, Mamma grew rapidly through word of mouth, and quickly became an established search engine on the Internet. Mamma.com's ability to gather the best search results available from top search sources and to provide useful tools to its users has resulted in its receiving multiple Honourable Mentions in the Best Metasearch category in the annual
Google Scholar Scholar Search Engine
Google Scholar provides a simple way to broadly search for scholarly literature. From one place, you can search across many disciplines and sources: peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, abstracts and articles, from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations. Google Scholar helps you identify the most relevant research across the world of scholarly research. Google Scholar aims to sort articles the way researchers do, weighing the full text of each article, the author, the publication in which the article appears, and how often the piece has been cited in other scholarly literature. The most relevant results will always appear on the first page.
Features of Google Scholar
Search diverse sources from one convenient place
Find papers, abstracts and citations
Locate the complete paper through your library or on the web
Learn about key papers in any area of research
Eric Digest Search Engine
Eric Digest provides one way to access the ERIC Digests (education articles) produced by the former ERIC Clearinghouse system. It contains short reports (1,000 - 1,500 words) on topics of prime current interest in education. There are a large variety of topics covered including teaching, learning, libraries, charter schools, special education, higher education, home schooling, and many more.
Short reports (1,000 - 1,500 words) on topics of prime current interest in education. There are a large variety of topics covered including teaching, learning, libraries, charter schools, special education, higher education, home schooling, and many more. Targeted specifically for teachers, administrators, policymakers, and other practitioners, but generally useful to the broad educational community. Designed to provide an overview of information on a given topic, plus references to items providing more detailed information Produced by the former 16 subject-specialized ERIC Clearinghouses, and reviewed by experts and content specialists in the field. Funded by the Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), of the U.S. Department of Education (ED).
Yahoo Search Engine
Yahoo! offers you new, faster ways to find the information you're looking for, whether it's on the Web or part of the Yahoo! network. You can access a range of features with one simple search.
You can find the basic search box on the main Yahoo! page. Or visit our ad-free, dedicated Yahoo! Search start page. Type a word or phrase into the search box and click "Search.
On the Yahoo! Search results page, tab links above the search box let you change the type of search and focus your results on images, breaking news, videos, or Yahoo! Directory listings. For example, after searching the Web for sites about "hybrid cars," you can click "Images" to search the Web for pictures of hybrid cars
Tuesday, March 10, 2009
I really like languages. For example I used to visit a blog on Learning Tagalog.....the explanation is in English besides learning Tagalog I could improve my English by the way of translating English to Tagalog or vice versa.Below I put Url that you can accses to learn tagalog...
HERE I put an article I found interesting on blog about computer radiation.Computer radiation happens when a computer monitor emits radiation. It was consider enough to cause damage to unborn baby in the whom of mother who sat too close to computer screen. Studies show that long-term exposure to radiation increases the risk of all forms of cancer, tumors, blood disorders, miscarriage, headaches, insomnia, anxiety, aging of the skin, skin burn, etc.
Radiation exposure over time can cause skin burn, dry wrinkled skin and photo aging. This skin damage is identical to sun damage and causes the same health problems. Many electronic products that we use on a daily basis expose us to harmful radiation
This aricle I found on this blog http://dubanime.blogspot.com/2009/03/tips-to-prevent-computer-radiation.html.Beside getting know deeper on how to prevent computer radiation I basically could expand my writing skill especially write article on computer field that requires me to know certain terminologies of computer that I did not know before such as computer radiation.
Tips to prevent Computer Radiation
A useful guide helps to prevent computer radiation.
1.Place several potted cactus beside your computer as they can effectively absorb the radiation released by the computer.
2.For those who have a tight schedule or have to rush for work, the simplest way to curb computer radiation is by simply drinking 2 to 3 cups of green tea and eating an orange. As green tea can be assimilated by the body easily into a form of vitamin A, which is later synthesised into a substance called rhodopsin, it helps reducing radiation. Also, rhodopsin helps keeping our eyes see things clearly in the dark by improving the visual ability, and at the same time protects us from the hazard of the computer radiation. Besides green tea, chrysanthemum tea, spirulina, Sea buckthorn oil also has the role of anti-radiation.
3.Make sure you do a skincare protection before sitting in front of the computer. Apply a layer of facial mask to prevent yourself from the hazard of radiation. Remember to rinse your face with clean alkaline water to eliminate some electromagnetic radiation particles that may have attached to the surface of your face. Make sure you wash your face promptly after using the computer in order to reduce 70% of the radiation.
4.It is advisable to attach a radiation filter plate in front of your computer's screen to reduce the hazard of radiation. Avoid putting any metal substances within the place where you place your computer as these metal substances may have reflected some of the electromagnetic waves that are harmful to your health. Adjust the brightness of your computer before using it. The brightest the screen the highest the radiation there will be and vice versa. Thus, try to adjust the screen brightness that is not too bright or too dark for your eyes to capture. In contrary, lowest level of brightness may irritate your eyes and cause your eyes strained easily. Take note that the brightness of the screen should make your eyes feel comfortable to gaze at.
5.If possibly, purchase a new computer instead of using an old model computer. Old computer in general, has more radiations released than the new one within the same distance. Its radiation is usually one to two times higher than the newly developed computer.
6.The position where you place your computer is important in reducing radiation. Do not let the back screen of your computer overlooking the place where people are walking around. For your information, the strongest radiation is released from the back of the screen, followed by the right and left of the screen, while the front screen releases less radiation. Make sure your eyes are placed in a distance of 50 to 75cm away from the screen to reduce the hazard of an electromagnetic radiation of the computer.
7.Pay attention to the indoor ventilation. Recent research shows that the computer screen can produce a carcinogenic substance called bromine dibenzofuran, which is harmful to human's health. Therefore, make sure the place you put your computer is ventilated by a fan or a cooler. Otherwise, you have to search for a well-ventilated place before using the computer.
8.Take some foods which are rich in vitamin A and C such as carrots, cherries, apples, bean sprouts, tomatoes as a good measure to reduce the harmful effect of an indoor radiation.
9.For those who have to use a computer regularly while at work or at home, their eyes may get tired and pain easily after spending longer hours looking at the screen, so it is advisable to eat some bananas. The potassium in the banana helps easing the eyes disorders. Therefore, when your eyes feel dry, pain, irritated and dull, eat some bananas to relieve these eyes symptoms. Not only it eases eyestrain but also avoid premature aging of your eyes.
Here I also put a blog URL on treatments for radiation sickness
Tuesday, March 3, 2009
A Brief Introduction On Reading for information
This text considers under the category of reading for information. Reading for information is classified when the source of the reading in form of journals, articles, books, webpage, or even newspaper. This kind of reading enables the reader to find as lot information as they want in order to expand their knowledge.
What is white phosphorus?
White phosphorus is a colorless, white, or yellow waxy solid with a garlic-like odor. It does not occur naturally, but is manufactured from phosphate rocks. White phosphorus reacts rapidly with oxygen, easily catching fire at temperatures 10 to 15 degrees above room temperature. White phosphorus is used by the military in various types of ammunition, and to produce smoke for concealing troop movements and identifying targets. It is also used by industry to produce phosphoric acid and other chemicals for use in fertilizers, food additives, and cleaning compounds. Small amounts of white phosphorus were used in the past in pesticides and fireworks If particles of white phosphorus land on the body, they burn through clothing and stick to the skin, scorching through layer after layer of tissue until their supply of oxygen is cut off. Even when it is not burning, the chemical effects of phosphorus can be absorbed deeper into the body causing multiple organ failure. Different patients react in different ways - some will die from a small burn others will survive. Doctors in Gaza have said patients with 15% burns have surprised them by dying.
Summary of the text
This reading text is about white phosphorus that found in phosphate rock. It reacts with oxygen and will burn when the temperature within 10 to 15 degree. This is dangerous for human especially in term of health. The use of white phosphorus bomb was banned during he Geneva convention because it harms human body when the phosphorus is happen to be exposed to them.Basically when it land to the body it will burn tour skin rapidly until all of your skin tissues burned. White phosphorus is used by the military in various types of ammunition, and to produce smoke for concealing troop movements and identifying targets.
Israel used White Phosphorus against HAMAS targets in Gaza during Operation Cast Lead in January 2009. This violated no international laws or conventions.
White Phosphorus (WP), known as Willy Pete, is used for signaling, screening, and incendiary purposes. White Phosphorus can be used to destroy the enemy's equipment or to limit his vision. It is used against vehicles, petroleum, oils and lubricants (POL) and ammunition storage areas, and enemy observers. WP can be used as an aid in target location and navigation. It is usually dispersed by explosive munitions. It can be fired with fuze time to obtain an airburst. White phosphorus was used most often during World War II in military formulations for smoke screens, marker shells, incendiaries, hand grenades, smoke markers, colored flares, and tracer bullets.
The Battle of Fallujah was conducted from 8 to 20 November 2004 with the last fire mission on 17 November. The battle was fought by an Army, Marine and Iraqi force of about 15,000 under the I Marine Expeditionary Force (IMEF). US forces found WP to be useful in the Battle of Fallujah. "WP proved to be an effective and versatile munition. We used it for screening missions at two breeches and, later in the fight, as a potent psychological weapon against the insurgents in trench lines and spider holes when we could not get effects on them with HE. We fired “shake and bake” missions at the insurgents, using WP to flush them out and HE to take them out. ... We used improved WP for screening missions when HC smoke would have been more effective and saved our WP for lethal missions."
White phosphorus is not banned by any treaty to which the United States is a signatory. Smokes and obscurants comprise a category of materials that are not used militarily as direct chemical agents. The United States retains its ability to employ incendiaries to hold high-priority military targets at risk in a manner consistent with the principle of proportionality that governs the use of all weapons under existing law. The use of white phosphorus or fuel air explosives are not prohibited or restricted by Protocol III of the Certain Conventional Weapons Convention (CCWC), the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons which may be Deemed to be Excessively Injurious or to have Indiscriminate Effects, which regulates the use of "any weapon or munition which is primarily designed to set fire to objects or to cause burn injury to persons . . ."
White Phosphorus (WP) - Health Effects
Systemic toxicity may occur if therapy is not administered. Therapy consists of topical use of a bicarbonate solution to neutralize phosphoric acids and mechanical removal and debridement of particles. A Wood’s lamp in a darkened room may help to identify remaining luminescent particles. The early signs of systemic intoxication by phosphorus are abdominal pain, jaundice, and a garlic odor of the breath; prolonged intake may cause anemia, as well as cachexia and necrosis of bone, involving typically the maxilla and mandible (phossy jaw). Prolonged absorption of phosphorus causes necrosis of bones. It is a hepatotoxin.
The presenting complaints of overexposed workers may be toothache and excessive salivation. There may be a dull red appearance of the oral mucosa. One or more teeth may loosen, with subsequent pain and swelling of the jaw; healing may be delayed following dental procedures such as extractions; with necrosis of bone, a sequestrum may develop with sinus tract formation. In a series of 10 cases, the shortest period of exposure to phosphorus fume (concentrations not measured) that led to bone necrosis was 10 months (two cases), and the longest period of exposure was 18 years.
Signs and symptoms include irritation of the eyes and the respiratory tract; abdominal pain, nausea, and jaundice; anemia, cachexia, pain, and loosening of teeth, excessive salivation, and pain and swelling of the jaw; skin and eye burns. Phossy jaw must be differentiated from other forms of osteomyelitis. With phossy jaw, a sequestrum forms in the bone and is released from weeks to months later; the sequestra are light in weight, yellow to brown, osteoporotic, and decalcified, whereas sequestra from acute staphylococcal osteomyelitis are sharp, white spicules of bone, dense and well calcified. In acute staphylococcal osteomyelitis, the radiographic picture changes rapidly and closely follows the clinical course, but with phossy jaw the diagnosis sometimes is clinically obvious before radiological changes are discernible. It is good dental practice to take routine X-ray films of jaws, but experience indicates that necrosis can occur in the absence of any pathology that is visible on the roentgenogram
My view on this topic
I am interested in this topic because of the issue that arouse recently of the use of white phosphorus bomb by Israel in Gaza in the present attack on Gaza, despite denials from the Israel that it is using controversial white phosphorus in the densely populated areas of Gaza, photographic evidence to the contrary has shown the shell being used are American-made WP munitions.
Gaza hospitals have witnessed considerable numbers of civilians entering with burns with one technician saying “The burns are very unusual. They don't look like burns we have normally seen. They are third-level burns that we can't seem to control".